Yale’s Beinecke Library Buys Vast Collection of Lincoln Photos


Abraham Lincoln last visited New Haven in March 1860, when, as a likely presidential candidate, he gave a speech on slavery. He is now set for a triumphal return.
The Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Libraryat Yale University will announce Monday that it has purchased one of the largest private collections of 19th-century American photography, devoted primarily to Lincoln and the Civil War, from the Meserve-Kunhardt Foundation, run by the family that has collected and preserved the material for five generations.
The Meserve-Kunhardt Collection, with more than 73,000 items, includes 57,000 prints, as well as thousands of books, pamphlets, maps and theater broadsides. “It is of enormous value,” said James M. Cornelius, the curator of the Lincoln Collection at the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield, Ill. “Without question, it has the largest holdings of images of Lincoln and his circle that we know of.”
Among the highlights are a large-format albumen portrait of Lincoln in 1863 by Alexander Gardner, a vintage print of Mathew Brady’s “Cooper Union” portrait of Lincoln, a Gardner print of Lincoln’s second inaugural that shows John Wilkes Booth in the crowd, and a glass negative of Brady’s portrait of Lincoln with his son Tad. The collection also includes other Lincoln artifacts, such as the library from his Springfield home and Lincoln family scrapbooks.
“This is not an area we had focused on,” said George Miles, the senior curator at the Beinecke Library. “But because the collection is so comprehensive, it allows us to go from being weak to remarkably strong in one acquisition.”
Peter W. Kunhardt Sr., a board member with the family foundation, directed by his son Peter W. Kunhardt Jr., said: “We knew the foundation could do a good job of preserving and cataloging the collection, but not for the long haul. It needs to be housed in an institution under better conditions.”
Since 2009, the collection has been stored at the art museum and library at Purchase College, part of the State University of New York. Six weeks ago it was moved to the foundation’s new offices in Pleasantville, N.Y., which also house the photographic archive of Gordon Parks.
The opening of the Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage, a research and conservation center on Yale’s West Campus, was a powerful incentive to place the collection with the university, as did plans to add a research center for photographic conservation, the Lens Media Laboratory. Because Yale has both a rare books library and an art museum, the material will be divided accordingly this fall.
Yale purchased the collection with support from the Rice Family Foundation, which brought the two parties together. “We’ve committed a very significant part of our acquisition budget to this,” said Mr. Miles, who declined to give the purchase price or the size of the acquisition budget. The Kunhardt family also declined to discuss the price paid for the collection.
It comes with a family story that begins on the battlefields of the Civil War. William Neal Meserve, a Union soldier, was wounded twice at Antietam and served in the Wilderness Campaign under Ulysses S. Grant, rising to the rank of major. Along the way, he kept a diary in a series of small notebooks.
“After the war, he suffered from what we would call post-traumatic stress,” Mr. Kunhardt Sr. said. “He was on track to become a dentist, but he lost it. He became a traveling preacher and deserted his family.”
In the late 1890s, Frederick Hill Meserve, William’s son, tried to re-establish a relationship. Writing to his father in California, he proposed a joint project. If his father would transcribe the diaries and Frederick would find the photographs to illustrate the text, which ended up filling two large volumes.
In 1897, at Bangs auction house on Lower Fifth Avenue, Frederick paid $1.10, sight unseen, for a package of 100 salt prints made in the late 1850s and early 1860s. It contained portraits of eminent figures like Ralph Waldo Emerson and Robert E. Lee, all in pristine condition. “That night I had my first experience of the sensation of intoxication, the only kind I have ever experienced, that comes with the possession of a rare find,” he later recalled.
The fever was stoked when he visited a warehouse in Jersey City that contained thousands of discarded glass negatives from Brady’s studio, most of them used to make the small, inexpensive portraits known as cartes de visite. The trove included seven life negatives of Lincoln.
He bought them all, more than 10,000 plates. Nearly 5,500 of them went to the National Portrait Gallery in Washington in 1981, including the famous “cracked plate” portrait of Lincoln, a one-off outtake by Gardner, one of Brady’s operatives. Taken on Feb. 5, 1865, the portrait has a horizontal line running across the top third of the photo, reproducing a crack in the photographic plate.
The Lincoln material seized Frederick’s imagination. He set the goal of acquiring and cataloging every Lincoln photograph in existence. In 1911, he published “Photographs of Abraham Lincoln,” a landmark work with 100 portraits. “It was the lodestar for understanding Lincoln’s visual presence,” said Mr. Cornelius, the Springfield curator.
Frederick’s Lincoln collection had already provided the image on the 1909 Lincoln penny and its photographs would later be used for the engraving on the $5 bill, the statue in the Lincoln Memorial and the giant Lincoln on Mount Rushmore.
To place Lincoln in context, Frederick began gathering photographs that would illustrate the era. In time, he amassed about 8,000 portraits in 28 volumes, starting with Lincoln’s cabinet and his political contemporaries, and expanding to include the entire officer corps of the Union Army (and all but three of the Confederacy’s), along with actors, writers and notables from all walks of life. He called it “an American national portrait gallery.” The family calls it “the opus.”
 “He saved from utter destruction and loss thousands of glass-plate negatives and prints from Brady and other photographers of the era,” Mr. Cornelius said. “This, at a time when collecting Americana was a low-grade activity.”
Virtually anything that pertained to America in the 1860s made its way into the collection, including handwritten daily meteorological observations for Washington, compiled for the Smithsonian Institution. One day is missing: On April 15, 1865, the day Lincoln died, part of the entry reads: “This horrible transaction made such an impression on me that I neglected to record the temperature at 2 and 10 p.m.”
On the flip side of a carte de visite with the portrait of Booth, an unknown hand inscribed the following order: “Do recognize him somewhere and kill him.” The origin of the card is unclear, although William Meserve, in charge of a fort near Washington, took part in the manhunt for Booth and his accomplices the night of the murder.
Dorothy Meserve Kunhardt, Frederick’s daughter, worked closely with her father for years and made some key discoveries along the way. She found 600 volumes from Lincoln’s personal library in a used bookstore in Springfield and through a caretaker of Lincoln’s Springfield home she obtained his family scrapbooks. Dorothy was also a highly successful author of children’s books, including “Pat the Bunny.”
Succeeding generations have used the collection as the basis for nearly a dozen books and several documentaries, produced by Mr. Kunhardt’s company, Kunhardt Films. “The Photographs of Abraham Lincoln” has just been published by Steidl. “Living With Lincoln,” an hourlong documentary about the Kunhardt family and the collection, will be broadcast April 13 on HBO.

Jeff Rosenheim, the curator in charge of the department of photographs at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, used the collection extensively for his 2013 exhibition “Photography and the American Civil War.” “There are archives that change what you think you know,” he said. “This is one of them.”

Gambino betting ring leads to guilty plea

Posted on March 26, 2015 | By Michael P. Mayko

STAMFORD-A New York City bookmaker’s involvement in a mob-controlled gambling operation here now faces a year in prison and a loss of $160,988.
Salvatore Ferraioli, 33, of Staten Island, N.Y. pleaded guilty to failing to file a wagering tax return in 2011 during proceedings Wednesday before U.S. District Judge Vanessa L. Bryant in the Hartford federal courthouse.
Bryant set sentencing for June 17. At that time, Ferraioli faces not only a year in prison but an order to pay back taxes, penalties and interest.
Court documents disclose that Ferraioli was part of a multi-million dollar gambling operation headed by Dean DePreta of Stamford and Richard Uva formerly of Trumbull.
DePreta has been described as the “titular head” of the Gambino crime family’s operation in southwestern Connecticut. He was sentenced to 71 months in prison for his role in the operation. Uva, DePreta’s long time friend who federal prosecutors described as “the chief operating officer” for the Gambino betting ring was sentenced to 46 months in prison for his role.
The gambling operation involved an internet website in Costa Rica and gambling houses in Stamford and Hamden.
The case was prosecuted by Assistant U.S. Attorneys Hal Chen and Peter Jongbloed. The FBI and IRS Criminal Division along with the Bridgeport, Stamford and State police.

State Mulls Ban on Sale of Ivory Products

by Jordan Fenster

A public hearing was held Wednesday on a bill that would prohibit the sale in Connecticut of products made out of ivory and rhinoceros horn.

A federal ban on elephant ivory enacted in 2014, puts some limitations on the commercial sale and non-commercial possession of ivory products, but Connecticut’s bill, Raised Bill No. 6955, would go significantly further.

As written the measure specifies that “No person shall import, sell, offer for sale, purchase, barter or possess with the intent to sell, any ivory, ivory product, rhinoceros horn or rhinoceros horn product.”

The bill defines ivory as “any tooth or tusk, or any part thereof, that is composed of ivory from any animal, including, but not limited to, any elephant, hippopotamus, mammoth, narwhal, walrus or whale or any piece thereof.”

Animal-rights activists spoke vociferously in favor of the measure, and though antique dealers and museum operators testifying before the legislator’s Environment Committee were sympathetic to the plight of elephants and rhinos, they urged lawmakers to alter the proposal.

Charles Mathes, president of Visibles Inc., a publisher and licenser of fine art, said the measure would “literally take money out the pockets of collectors.”

“Of course everyone wishes to save the elephants, but making it impossible to buy or sell ivory that was made into artifacts a hundred years ago benefits no one — including elephants,” he said.

Susan Talbott, director and CEO of Hartford’s Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, suggested the bill be tweaked to allow museums to acquire antique ivory artwork, and to redefine the term antique, as it relates to ivory-based products, to objects created prior to 1976.

Should the bill pass as it is written, “The Wadsworth Atheneum would not be able to acquire important artworks made with or from ivory, nor would the institution be permitted to participate in international exhibitions and loans with foreign lenders,” Talbott told committee members.

Connecticut has a long and complicated history with ivory, as Jody Blankenship, executive director of the Connecticut Historical Society told committee members Wednesday.

“In the 1700s lasting through World War II, the village of Ivoryton and other areas in the lower Connecticut River Valley held a monopoly on the importation and manufacture of ivory products in the United States,” she said. “This industry led to the exploitation of the African Bush Elephant and enslavement of thousands of humans. Our history reveals the negative outcomes of the ivory trade and how consumer demand for ‘exotic’ materials can lead to the endangerment of a species.”

Amy Gagnon, a historian from New Britain, told committee members that local towns with a history in the ivory trade have attempted to make “reparations” for acts she called “inhumane and illegal.”

“A little over a century ago, 90 percent of the nation’s ivory came into the country via Deep River and Essex. In these quaint Connecticut towns at the mouth of the river, thousands upon thousands of tusks made their way to our shores and people made fortunes from this ivory,” she wrote. “Today, we witness the consequences of this on a regular basis as town leaders, residents, and descendants of the families who facilitated the ivory business in Deep River and Essex strive to make reparations to this dark history through education, programs, and awareness.”

Allen Sandico, CEO of the Seattle-based Tusk Task Force, said in written testimony that the black market in ivory has helped fund terrorist groups such as al-Shabaab and Boko Haram.

“Connecticut has the tremendous opportunity to mitigate the funding of terrorism by banning all commerce related to ivory and rhino horn,” he said.

Both New York and New Jersey already have bans on ivory products in place. Several other states, including Oregon and California, are considering a similar ban.

Noted in passing

Angelo Santaniello (90) retired Connecticut Supreme Court justice who wrote more than 100 majority opinions during his nine years on the high court. Santaniello became a state judge in 1966 and served on the Supreme Court from '85–94. He was especially noted for his work settling cases at the appellate level. He died in New London, Connecticut on March 1, 2015.

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Connecticut Historical Society wants kids to submit objects that represent their Connecticut experiences

By John Burgeson

From a press release:
Hartford – While adults’ Connecticut experience may be represented by a family heirloom, a community symbol or a meaningful document, product or photo, kids have their own great ideas of what makes our state special.
As part of Connecticut: 50 Objects/50 Stories, its crowdsourced history treasure hunt and upcoming exhibit, the Connecticut Historical Society (CHS) is reaching out to families, schools and community organizations. With support from their families and teachers, they’re encouraging kids ages 4-14 to submit their special object or story for the Connecticut Kids: Your Objects, Your Stories project.
The objects that Connecticut kids submit to the exhibit could be related to a special memory. They could represent unique or fun aspects of where their families live in Connecticut. The object could represent family traditions, or a favorite hobby or activity.
CHS will choose a selection of kids’ objects to appear in a pop-up exhibit at their 1 Elizabeth Street, Hartford, museum on Saturday, June 6, from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. That day, children and their families are invited to see the objects and participate in activities that celebrate the kids’ stories.
Under a parent or guardian’s supervision, kids can submit the object through CHS’s online form at chs.org/ctkids. The deadline for submission is April 30.
Want to learn what objects have been suggested to date from across the state? Check them out in CHS’s 50 Objects Gallery at http://chs.org/50objects/.

For more information on the Connecticut Kids: Your Objects, Your Stories exhibit, email the Connecticut Historical Society at ask_us@chs.org or call 860-236-5621.

Facts About Connecticut History: 6 Things You Might Not Know

 By Jason Gray

The Constitution State has a long and colorful history. However, the state seems more known these days for being home to more insurance professionals per capita than any other state in the country as well as the headquarters for ESPN. But some of the other facts about Connecticut will surprise even the most die-hard New Englander.

1. The first nuclear submarine was launched in Connecticut.
The Electric Boat Shipyard in Groton, Connecticut, built the USS Nautilus, the first nuclear powered submarine, in 1954. The submarine made history by being the first ship to cross the North Pole. The sub is now part of the Submarine Force Museum in Groton. Electric Boat, now part of General Dynamics, remains the top submarine shipbuilder for the U.S. Navy.

2. Connecticut has always been the "Arsenal of the Nation."
The nuclear submarines of Electric Boat or the attack helicopters of United Technologies trace their roots in Connecticut culture back to native son Samuel Colt's Hartford-based gunsmith company. Eli Whitney developed a way to make muskets from interchangeable parts in 1798, which led to a federal order for 15,000 muskets, according to the Connecticut Post. The Gatling Gun and Tommy Gun were also developed and built in Connecticut.

3. The Constitution State nickname doesn't refer to the U.S. Constitution.
The Fundamental Orders of 1639 was the first written constitution of a democratic government. It remained the colony's law for 23 years and provided for election of a governor and six magistrates, according to the Bill of Rights Institute.

4. I'll drink to that: Connecticut one of only two states that voted against Prohibition.
Connecticut and Rhode Island were the only two states to reject the 18th Amendment and prohibition at first. Connecticut eventually ratified it after it had already been adopted by the U.S. Constitution, but it failed its first vote in the state Senate by a vote of 20 to 14.

5. Naming the state after the river.
 The word “Connecticut” comes from the Algonquian “Quinnitukqut,” which means “at the long tidal river,” according to the Online Etymology Dictionary. It is one of eight state names that come from Algonquian language roots. Luckily for people trying to remember how to spell it, Noah Webster of his eponymous dictionary was born in Connecticut.

6. Home of the second largest casino in the country.
Mashantucket, Connecticut, is home to the Foxwoods Resort Casino and its 344,000 square feet of gaming space. The Mashantucket Pequot Tribe owns the casino, which is located on their reservation land.
Twenty-five percent of slot machine revenue goes to the state, resulting in more than $3.2 billion in state revenue since Foxwoods added slot machines in 1994, according to the Harford Courant.

Foxwoods' record as the largest casino was lost in 2013 when the WinStar World Casino expansion opened in Thackerville, Oklahoma. 

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Macaroni   \mak-uh-ROH-nee\
 1 :       pasta made from semolina and shaped in the form of slender tubes
 2 :       an affected young man : fop

The macaroni in the song "Yankee Doodle" is not the familiar food. The feather in Yankee Doodle's cap apparently makes him a macaroni in the now rare "fop" or "dandy" sense. The sense appears to have originated with a club established in London by a group of young, well-traveled Englishmen in the 1760s. The founders prided themselves on their appearance, sense of style, and manners, and they chose the name Macaroni Club to indicate their worldliness. Because macaroni was, at the time, a new and rather exotic food in England, the name was meant to demonstrate how stylish the club's members were. The members were themselves called macaronis, and eventually macaroni became synonymous with dandy and fop.

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'Lost Gardens' of New England unearths forgotten gems

Phyllis A.S. Boros

Of all the design arts, those dealing with elaborate gardens are the most ephemeral -- dependent as they are on the changing seasons and the boom-and-bust cycles of the economy.
From the Colonial era to present day, New England's great gardens always have been linked to the value of the land from which they spring. Over the years, many have been subdivided for building and housing developments or paved over for parking lots.
The region's rich garden-design history is the subject of "Lost Gardens of New England," a traveling exhibition from the nonprofit Historic New England preservation organization. The exhibit opens Sunday, March 1, (and runs through July 31) at the Lyman Allyn Art Museum in New London.
Jane LeGrow, registrar and assistant curator at Lyman, pointed out in a recent chat that the apex of the American Country House & Garden era extended from about 1880 until the 1920s and the onset of the Great Depression.
"It was a period when the economy was booming, labor was cheap and there was no income tax. Emulating the English aristocracy" was appealing to the very wealthy and the ever-growing merchant and middle classes, she explained. And vast, extremely sophisticated gardens were designed and built, often featuring greenhouses, formal gardens of hedges and pathways, "cutting" gardens (where blooms were harvested for indoor decoration), herb or "kitchen" gardens and woodland areas.
The exhibition will features more than 40 paintings and photographs of lost gardens, garden ornaments, outdoor furniture, stereo view cards, garden supply catalogues and original design specifications, as well as objects from the Lyman Allyn's collection. The exhibition is divided into thematic groupings, including urban gardens, family gardens and professionally designed landscapes.
As the exhibition points out, New England gardens of the Colonial period and the New
Republic-era were greatly influenced by English design. From about 1850 to 1890, "a distinctive American style emerged ... (embracing) the native picturesque landscape while seeking, through design, to tame and refine the national character."
At around 1900, New Englanders "turned to history for inspiration, and created a wide variety of `revival' gardens," including `old-time' designs reflecting "classical gardens of Italian villas and the formal gardens of French chateaux."
By the middle of the 19th century, Andrew Jackson Downing "emerged as one of the most significant voices in the development of American domestic architecture and rural taste"... with his "Treatise on the Theory and Practise of Landscape Gardening Adapted to North America" (reportedly enormously popular with the middle class).
Along with Downing, Hartford-native Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903) is "often considered a father of American landscape architecture ... Best known for his public parks, Olmsted influenced generations of landscape architects and garden designers," LeGrow wrote in her notes on the exhibition.
"Olmsted had already had a varied career as farmer, travel writer, journalist and public administrator when he turned his attention to landscape design in the 1850s," LeGrow said. "Olmsted was introduced to the talented English architect Calvert Vaux by Downing, a mentor to both men. Together, Olmsted and Vaux won a contest to design New York's Central Park, drawing on Vaux's practical knowledge and Olmsted's strong sense of social consciousness.
"Olmsted drew on early experiences in his approach to landscape design. Sympathetic to the plight of Southern slaves and the working classes in America and abroad, Olmsted believed that public green spaces should be available to all as a restorative antidote to the ills of urban living," LeGrow said.
"Landscape, he believed, could create a powerful emotional response, as well as a sense of shared community. This democratic sense of purpose, combined with an emphasis on naturalistic design and simple aesthetic unity, is a hallmark of his work."
Olmsted and his firm would have enormous impact throughout the nation, including in Bridgeport, where they created both Beardsley and Seaside parks, portions of which remain. He also is renowned for his work on Brooklyn, N.Y.'s, Prospect Park, Boston's Emerald Necklace, the park system of Louisville, Ky., the grounds of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., and the Biltmore Estate in Asheville, N.C.
LeGrow said that "Olmsted's stepson, John Charles Olmsted (1852-1920), and son, Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. (1870-1957), continued the firm's work after his retirement in 1895 and death in 1903. The Olmsted brothers firm carried out hundreds of commissions, many of which are today credited to the elder Olmsted. But the brothers were accomplished landscape architects in their own right. Both were founding members of the American Society of Landscape Architects."
LeGrow said that many of the gardens that are highlighted in the exhibition "were lost to changes in fortune and ownership. Grand estates were sold and subdivided."
" `Money is the best manure,' goes an old gardeners' saying," she said, adding that "as any gardener knows, even a modest plot requires a great investment of resources."
But not all great gardens were lost to declining fortunes and/or neglect, LeGrow said.
In Connecticut, for example, the stunning gardens at the 1906 Eolia mansion at Harkness Memorial State Park in Waterford (directly on Long Island Sound) were restored by volunteers in the 1990s followed by a state contribution of $3.8 million for the further restoration of the grounds and mansion. A project goal was to restore designer Beatrix Farrand's original design. "Unfortunately, not all plans for Eolia's gardens were found. In some cases only the pathways had been laid out, as Farrand liked to exercise artistic control by hand placing each plant," LeGrow said.
"The work of restoring and maintaining a site like Eolia does not end. Funds are currently being raised for the restoration of the historic Lord and Burnham greenhouse and restoration of the carriage house and water tower are on the horizon. With community support, Eolia will provide the public decades of enjoyment and escape," she said.
Another historic Connecticut home, the 1846 Roseland Cottage (also known as Henry C. Bowen House or Bowen Cottage, on Route 169 in Woodstock) is renowned for its Gothic Revival architecture and extraordinary parterre gardens (formal gardens with planting beds, typically in symmetrical patterns, separated and connected by gravel pathways, with or without flowers).
Lost properties included in the exhibition include Westomere and Meadow Court (New London); Medford Gardens (Medford, Mass.); Hamilton House Garden (South Berwick, Maine); and the Rundlet-May House (Portsmouth, N.H.).
Lyman Allyn Art Museum, 625 Williams St., New London. Open Tuesday-Saturday 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sundays 1 to 5 p.m.; closed Mondays and major holidays. Admission is $10; seniors, students 19 and older and active military, $7; students 12 to 18, $5; children younger than 12, free. 860-443-2545. http://www.lymanallyn.org.

Mary Hall

Mary Hall (August 16, 1843 – November 15, 1927) was the first female lawyer in Connecticut, and also a poet, a suffragist, and a philanthropist. In 1882, the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors’ decision to allow Hall to be admitted to the Connecticut Bar was the first judicial decision in the nation to hold that women were permitted to practice law
Mary Hall was born in Marlborough, Connecticut, one of seven children of Gustavus E. Hall and Louisa (Skinner) Hall. Gustavus Hall was a prosperous farmer and miller, known to be one of liberal convictions. Hall graduated from Wesleyan Academy in Wilbraham, Massachusetts, in 1866. She was an accomplished poet, winning a medal for her commencement poem and having her poems published in newspapers. Hall then went on to teach mathematics at the LaSalle Seminary near Boston, where she became the Chair of Mathematics.
In 1877, Hall decided to pursue the study of law. She approached her brother, Ezra, who was already an attorney and Connecticut State Senator, about her decision. Although he gave her no encouragement, upon her insistence, he gave her a copy of difficult legal work. After watching her study the work with great enthusiasm, Ezra decided to allow Hall to apprentice in his office. However, Ezra died a few months later in April 1878. John Hooker, the Clerk of the Supreme Court of Errors, took Hall in as his apprentice, beginning on April 2, 1879. That year, Belva Lockwood became the first woman admitted to argue before the U.S. Supreme Court. Hall studied law and copied and prepared judicial opinions under Hooker’s supervision and instruction for over three years.
On April 2, 1880, while studying law, Hall founded the Good Will Club, a charity for underprivileged boys, particularly newspaper boys. The program provided education as well as vocational training. The Club began with nine boys, but eventually grew to 3.000 boys, with its own facilities and newspaper called “The Good Will Star.” Despite her eventual practice of law, the Club was “Mary Hall’s first priority, and her life’s work.”
In 1882, at the age of 38, Mary Hall made her application to the Connecticut Bar. She passed an examination on March 22, 1882. On March 24, 1882, the Hartford Bar Association held a regular meeting at which Hooker moved to have Hall admitted to the usual examination before the Bar Examining Committee, attesting that she had studied law in his office for three years and that she possessed the requisite qualifications for admission to the bar.
 The members agreed to allow Hall to be examined for the bar, subject to the ruling of the Supreme Court of Errors on its legality.
Hall had many supporters nationwide who believed that her admission to the Bar would be important for women's suffrage. An editorial published in the Hartford Courant stated: “It is to be hoped that the members of the Hartford county bar will not see fit to put themselves on the illiberal side, on the pending application of an accomplished lady for admission to the bar. When women are allowed as teachers and as physicians without question, it would be taking a long step backward to refuse their admission to the bar. It would be regarded as a confession of fear on the part of men.”
 Another article stated, “Those very earnest and patient people of both sexes who advocate woman suffrage will look upon Miss Hall’s success in getting a decision in her favor as an important contribution to the triumph of their cause.”
In May 1882, Thomas McManus submitted the brief in support of Hall in the case labeled In re Hall. He argued that “save sex,” there was no other reason why Hall should not be found to be qualified to be admitted to the Bar. Noting that women preached in churches, practiced medicine, taught in the classroom, and acted as executors, guardians, trustees, and overseers, he claimed that the language of the statute regulating attorneys “neither expressly [n]or impliedly exclude[d] women” and that “attorney” was defined as a “person.” Opposing counsel was Goodwin Collier, who argued that at the time the statute was enacted, women were excluded from the Bar and the legislature’s failure to change the statute indicated its intent to continue to exclude women.
On July 19, 1882, the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors issued its decision in favor of Hall. Chief Justice John Park wrote for the Court and took the position, contrary to Collier’s argument, that if the legislature wanted to exclude women, it would have rewritten the statute to expressly exclude them. Park explained his opinion, stating, “We are not to forget that all statutes are to be construed, as far as possible, in favor of equality of rights. All restrictions upon human liberty, all claims for special privileges, are to be regarded as having the presumption of law against them, and as standing upon their defense, and can be sustained, if at all by valid legislation, only by the clear expression or clear implication of the law.”
 This decision had the effect of holding that the laws of equal protection applied to women because he in effect rejected the “entire jurisprudence of separate spheres.”[8] It has been said that this decision as “[o]ne of the greatest decisions in all of Connecticut jurisprudence.”
During her legal career, Hall mostly confined herself to office work, assisting Hooker in preparing the Connecticut Reports and handling wills and property matters for women. Hall rarely appeared in court because “public sentiment would be much against a woman’s speaking in court.”
In addition to her legal work, Hall became increasingly involved in suffrage and social reform activities. In March 1885, Hall helped to find the Hartford Woman Suffrage Club and served as its Vice President. She also attended the International Council of Women to celebrate the first Woman’s Rights Convention, where the International Woman’s Bar Association was founded. Hall was then elected Assistant Secretary at the Connecticut Woman’s Suffrage Association convention.
 In 1895, Hall became a member of the State Board of Charities and was responsible for investigating and regulating the charitable institutions through the state. She also testified before the State Judiciary Committee in 1905 against a bill that would prohibit girls from selling newspapers.

Mary Hall will be remembered as a pioneer in the legal profession and a suffragist and reformist in Connecticut because of her dedication to the cause of women and of the welfare of underprivileged children.

Connecticut Magazine Ranks Best Pizza in State

What's your favorite pizza joint? Connecticut Magazine has compiled a list of the state's top pizza places – and those that will soon have their own slice of history.
There's no numerical system here. Instead, restaurants are ranked in categories: "Legends" are pizza royalty (no surprise that many are located in New Haven) and "Legends in the Making" comprise up-and-coming pizza sensations.
There are also "Beer Bar Pizzas," "Unusual Places" and "Best of the Rest."

•           Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana in New Haven
•           Sally's Apizza in New Haven
•           Modern Apizza in New Haven
•           Roseland Apizza in Derby
•           BAR in New Haven

Legends in the Making
•           Colony Grill in Stamford, Fairfield and Milford
•           Da Legna in New Haven
•           Tarry Lodge in New Haven and Westport
•           Bufalina in Guilford

Beer Bar Pizza
•           Fire Engine Pizza Company in Bridgeport
•           Krust Pizza Bar in Middletown
•           Coal House Pizza in Stamford
•           Stanziato's in Danbury
•           Brick + Wood in Fairfield

Unusual Places
•           Nica's Market in New Haven
•           Mozzicato DePasquale Bakery, Pastry Shop & Cafe in Hartford
•           Nauti Dolphin Pizza in Fairfield
•           Vocatura Bakery in Norwich

A favorite place of mine

Headline-Making Nubble Lighthouse is Located Where?

By Kristi Palma
Boston.com Staff

Chances are, you’ve seen this lighthouse. That’s because the Nubble Lighthouse (its nickname — to make our guessing game harder, we’ll refrain from using its official name) has appeared on more postcards, souvenirs, and calendars than perhaps any other New England lighthouse.
It was built in 1879 and stands 41 feet high and 88 feet above sea level.
 “Nubble Light in Sohier Park is considered the most photographed lighthouse in the world,” Burke told Boston.com. “Whether that’s true or not, most people visit and photograph the Nubble in summer. I wanted to see how spectacular the Nubble would be in winter. I was not disappointed.”
Nubble Light made headlines in 1977 when NASA included a picture of it with artifacts aboard the “Voyager II” spacecraft being sent into space to photograph the solar system. The photo was chosen because the lighthouse was considered America’s quintessential lighthouse.
But the lighthouse was making headlines before that.
In the 1960s, Nubble Lighthouse Keeper David K. Winchester received groceries by using a pulley-line, which consisted of a wooden box suspended on a thick metal cable. The box attached to the cable extended from the mainland to the Nubble Lighthouse island and transported food 50 feet above the choppy waters.
Then in 1967, Winchester had the idea to transport something else in the box — his child. He sent his little boy Ricky along the 100-yard channel twice a day to get to the mainland for school. The Boston Globe got wind of it and wrote an article and published photos of the boy traveling through the air. Crowds who read the story then turned out to watch the unorthodox commute. According to reports, it wasn’t long before the U.S. Coast Guard got involved and stopped the practice.
A live-in lighthouse keeper hasn’t been needed at Nubble Light since 1987, when the lighthouse became fully automated. But the town still employs lighthouse keepers to maintain the property. Current keeper Matt Rosenberg, whose commute involves rowing from the mainland to the island to care for the property, told Seacoastonline.com about his job: “You have to love hardship. Everything is more difficult.”
What town and state is Nubble Light located in?
Thank you to Burke for sharing his beautiful photo. Check back with us tomorrow for the answer. And get travel inspiration every Tuesday on Twitter using the hashtag #TravelTuesday.

The Answer: Nubble Light is in York, Maine. The official name of the lighthouse is Cape Neddick Lighthouse.

Connecticut History: 6 Events That Shaped the State

By Morgan Chilson

Connecticut may be the third smallest state in area in the country, but its rich history traces back to the original 13 colonies.

Here are six historic events that were critical in shaping this New England state:

1. Connecticut's history can be traced 50 long before the English settlers from Plymouth Colony established trading posts there in the 1600s. Native American Indians have been in the state for thousands of years. The Pequot Tribe, for instance, was prominent in the area and had about 8,000 members in the early 17th century. But conflict with the early settlers devastated the tribe during the Pequot War of 1636-1639, leaving just 151 tribal members in 1774. The numbers of Pequots in the Mashantucket area began to grow again in the early 1970s.

2. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies joined with Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth to create the New England Confederation in 1643. Although a main supply area for the Continental Colony, the state saw little fighting during the Revolutionary War. Connecticut became one of the first states to pass the U.S. Constitution.

3. Harriet Beecher Stowe, a Connecticut native, published "Uncle Tom's Cabin," an important literary push in 1851 to abolish slavery. "Abraham Lincoln reportedly said to her, 'You're the little lady who started this (Civil) war,'" says Connecticut Still Revolutionary.

4. Although many Connecticut citizens supported the Civil War through fighting, manufacturing munitions and in other ways, the state population was divided almost equally on whether to support the North or the South. Many in the state raised peace flags, asking for a peaceful settlement of the conflict and violently opposed war participation. The state leaned more toward the side of those supporting emancipation, but most were not abolitionists. "The state's residents may have ultimately supported emancipation, but they were not advocates of black civic equality — they were not abolitionists," author Matthew Warshauer wrote. "This legacy of racial intolerance, as well as that of the sacrifices of Connecticut soldiers and those on the home front, is symbolized in the state's Civil War monuments. That today we understand the war as the death knell of slavery does not mean that those who fought the conflict meant it to be so. It was a result of the war, but not an intent."

5. In a frivolous bit of history that's brought joy to millions, Connecticut Yale University students invented the Frisbee, reports Connecticut Still Revolutionary. They were playing around with empty pie tins from Mrs. Frisbie Pies in Bridgeport.

6. In 1954, the Electric Boat Co. built the first nuclear submarine in Groton, Connecticut. President Harry S. Truman laid the keel in 1952 and it took 18 months to build the submarine, called The Nautilus, says The Submarine Force Museum, where the Nautilus can be seen today.

Old Connecticut

State senator proposes Gustave Whitehead Day

Bill Cummings

HARTFORD -- A Stratford lawmaker wants to one-up Ohio and designate Aug. 14 as Gustave Whitehead Day in Connecticut in honor of his historic flight near Bridgeport.
State Sen. Kevin Kelly, R-Stratford, introduced a bill to the General Assembly establishing Gustave Whitehead, First in Flight, Day to commemorate the disputed belief that Whitehead -- not the Wright Brothers -- first flew an airplane.
The Connecticut effort comes as an Ohio lawmaker is reintroducing a bill recognizing Orville and Wilbur Wright as the first to fly and denouncing the Whitehead claim. The Wright brothers were born in Ohio.
"Facing this opposition, Connecticut must stand strongly behind the history we know to be true," Kelly said.
"Senate Bill 772 will send a clear message: Connecticut was the birthplace of powered flight. Celebrating the exact historic day that changed history, we can ensure future generations never forget," he said.
Kelly is also proposing legislation to designate Whitehead's "Number 21" aircraft as the state pioneering aircraft.
Whitehead's 1901 Bridgeport flight -- some two years before the Wright Brothers took off in Kitty Hawk, N.C. -- was confirmed in 2013 as the first ever in the annual aviation encyclopedia "Jane's All the World's Aircraft."
Whitehead flew longer than the Wright Brothers, and even passed over a portion of Long Island Sound, according to historical records.
"I have nothing against Ohio, I'm even a Cleveland Browns fan," Kelly said. "But Ohio is wrong about this."
Don't tell that to anyone in Ohio
Ohio State Rep. Rick Perales is proposing legislation declaring the Wright Brothers the first to fly and denouncing the Whitehead claim.
"It's wrong for one state to distort history," Perales recently told the Dayton Daily News.
Ohio touts itself as the "birthplace of aviation" and annually generates millions of dollars in tourism and economic development through historic sites tied to the Wright Brothers.
"We need to refute (Whitehead's recognition), and there's no reason out there that anyone should challenge the Wright brothers as first in flight," Perales told the Dayton newspaper.
A bill sponsored by Perales passed an Ohio legislative committee in December, but failed to advance as the session closed. Perales is reintroducing it this year.
Kelly said he's pushing for a Whitehead Day because "Gustave Whitehead is an important part of Bridgeport history, Connecticut history and our nation's history."
The Connecticut Legislature has already passed an act honoring the first powered flight by Whitehead and recognizing Connecticut as first in flight.
Gov. Dannel P. Malloy in 2013 signed a law proclaiming the "The Ballroom Polka" as the official state polka. The law also allowed the governor to set aside a day every year "... to honor the first powered flight by Gustave," but so far a Whitehead Day has not been established.
Meanwhile, the Smithsonian refuses to declare Whitehead as the first person to fly, allegedly because of a very old deal. Hearst Connecticut Media previously reported the Smithsonian obtained the Wright Brothers' original plane, which is on display at the National Air and Space Museum, from the Wright family in exchange for never acknowledging someone else as first in flight.


Fenwick is a borough in, in the town of Old Saybrook. The population was 52 at the 2000 census, making it the least populous municipality in Connecticut.

Fenwick is set off from the town center of Old Saybrook by a large cove over a causeway. It is located exactly where the Connecticut River flows into Long Island Sound. Fenwick has two lighthouses, the Inner and the Outer. There is also a single private beach about a quarter of a mile away from the lighthouse. The Inner is at the tip of Lynde Point, Fenwick's peninsula, and the Outer is a quarter mile off shore, connected by a rough jetty. The Outer Light is the lighthouse shown on many Connecticut license plates.

The Fenwick Historic District covers an area of approximately 195 acres and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1995. It includes 60 buildings in the center of Fenwick, as well as the Fenwick Golf Course.

The District is composed largely of Shingle-style residences from early in the century. The Historic District comprises the bulk of the community, however some residences were built in the 1950s in a more modern style.

In the late 1800s The Fenwick Golf Course was created from several empty lots in the center of the district and is the site of the Stephen Potter Cup.

As of the of 2000 census, there were 52 people, 26 households, and 17 families residing in the borough. The racial makeup of the borough was 100.00% White.

 Fenwick was the lifelong home to actress Katharine Hepburn until she died on June 29, 2003 at the age of 96. Actress Rosemary Murphy, New York City mayor John Lindsay, and several members of the Whitney family have also lived there at one time or another. Fenwick is also home to Christopher Rehm, Conor Millard and Charlie McGrath.