1900 photo Lighthouse, New London,


The Capitol was opened in 1878 and stands in the picturesque setting of Bushnell Park. (Construction 1872 - 1879)

Designed by Richard M. Upjohn, a cathedral architect, this High Victorian Gothic style statehouse was designated a Registered National Historic Landmark in 1971 and underwent a restoration between 1979 and 1989.

The exterior marble from East Canaan, Connecticut and granite from Westerly, Rhode island is accented by a gold leaf dome.

The interior floors of the Capitol are inlaid with white marble and red slate from Connecticut and colored marble from Italy.

The stenciling, stained-glass windows and light fixtures were designed by Boston interior decorator William James McPherson.

 This beautiful and unique building houses the executive offices and legislative chambers of the state, as well as historical memorabilia including statues of Nathan Hale, "The Genius of Connecticut" and Governor William Buckingham.

The Battle Ship Connecticut

USS Connecticut (BB-18), the fourth United States Navy ship to be named after the state of Connecticut, was the lead ship of her class of six. Her keel was laid on March 10, 1903; launched on September 29, 1904, Connecticut was commissioned on September 29, 1906 as the most advanced ship in the U.S. Navy.
Connecticut served as the flagship for the Jamestown Exposition in mid-1907, which commemorated the 300th anniversary of the founding of the Jamestown colony. She later sailed with the Great White Fleet on a circumnavigation of the Earth to showcase the US Navy's growing fleet of blue-water-capable ships. After completing her service with the Great White Fleet, Connecticut participated in several flag-waving exercises intended to protect American citizens abroad until she was pressed into service as a troop transport at the end of World War I to expedite the return of American Expeditionary Forces from France.

For the remainder of her career, Connecticut sailed to various places in both the Atlantic and Pacific while training newer recruits to the Navy. However, the provisions of the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty stipulated that many of the older battleships, Connecticut among them, would have to be disposed of, so she was decommissioned on March 1, 1922 and sold for scrap on November 1, 1923.

Old Connecticut

Jennie Cramer

Jennie Cramer Murder Trial: 1882
Great American Trials   Smith, Tom  

Defendants: Blanche Douglass, James Malley Jr., Walter Mal ley
Crime Charged: Murder
Chief Defense Lawyers: Samuel F. Jones, Levi N. Blydenburgh, William C. Case, Timothy J. Fox (both Malleys); Louis C. Cassidy (James Malley); Edwin C. Dow, William B. Stoddard (Douglass)
Chief Prosecutors: Tilton E. Doolittle, Charles Bush
Judge: Miles T. Granger
Place: New Haven, Connecticut
Date of Trial: April 25-June 30, 1882
Verdict: Not guilty

SIGNIFICANCE: Possible witness bribery and an overly specific grand jury indictment helped wealthy defendants elude responsibility for one of Victorian New England's most notorious crimes.
At daybreak on Saturday morning, August 6, 1881, a fisherman found the lifeless body of a young woman floating by the West Haven, Connecticut, shoreline. She was Jennie Cramer, the twenty-year-old daughter of a German immigrant and his wife, who lived in nearby New Haven. Cramer's death shocked the city, for she was well known for her beauty and high spirits, especially among local young men.

One of her most persistent admirers was James Malley Jr., nephew of wealthy dry goods store owner Edward Malley. James Malley had called on Cramer at her father's cigar shop and sent her messages from his uncle's store, where he worked as a clerk. Cramer seemed uninterested in Malley's attentions, but she accepted several of his invitations to go walking or have dinner. The pair was always accompanied by James Malley's cousin Walter—Edward Malley's son—and a woman named Blanche Douglass, whom Walter had met in New York.

Despite her popularity with local bachelors, Jennie Cramer's moral character was considered to be spotless. Consequently, her mother was frantic when Cramer did not return home on the night of Wednesday, August 3. When she turned up on Thursday morning, Blanche Douglass accompanied her. Douglass assured Mrs. Cramer that she and Jennie had spent the night at a rooming house called the Elliott House, where no gentlemen were allowed, but Mrs. Cramer surmised that Douglass was no lady.

"Don't you know that you are disgracing yourself and disgracing your parents by staying out overnight?" Mrs. Cramer cried. "If you carry on like that we must find a place for you to stay when your little sister comes home. We can't have you here!" Mrs. Cramer left the room sobbing. When she regained her composure, Jennie was gone. Mrs. Cramer was terrified by the possibility that Jennie had taken her banishment threat seriously. Guilt-ridden, Mrs. Cramer visited James Malley at his uncle's store that afternoon and accused him of introducing her daughter to bad company. Malley replied that Blanche Douglass was a perfect lady and that the two young women had spent Wednesday night at the Elliott House. Nevertheless, he promised to bring Jennie home or contact the Cramers if he saw her. On Friday, the Cramers received a note from Malley stating that neither he nor Douglass were aware of Jennie's whereabouts. Saturday morning, the Cramers learned that Jennie was dead.

An Inquest's Second Thoughts
Because West Haven lacked a city government, investigating the death fell to a six-man coroner's jury. Bruises on the body nearly led to a conclusion that Cramer had drowned, but an official autopsy was conducted when one juror expressed second thoughts. The autopsy revealed that Cramer had not drowned. Hardly any water was found in her lungs and there was evidence that she had been raped within 48 hours of her death.

When the inquest sought clues about Cramer's last hours, Douglass and "the Malley boys" were called to testify. Douglass now said that she and Cramer had spent Wednesday night at the Malley mansion, where they had been singing and drinking wine alone with James and Walter. When Douglass felt ill, she convinced a reluctant Cramer to remain with her at the mansion all night. In the morning she accompanied Cramer home and witnessed the quarrel with Mrs. Cramer. Douglass swore that she last saw Cramer passing on a streetcar about noon on Thursday.

James Malley testified that he last saw Cramer when the two women left the mansion Thursday morning. Asked about his whereabouts on Friday night, he said that he was at home and that his entire family would swear to it. "My father came to me after the newspaper reports were concluded and asked me where I was Friday night," he replied, peculiarly modifying his answer. "No, he came to me and said, 'It's a lucky thing for you that you were home Friday night.'" Walter Malley echoed his cousin's testimony, adding that he thought that Cramer had gone to her brother's home in New York, accompanied by Douglass.

Other witnesses, however, swore to have seen Cramer with one or more of the trio on Thursday or Friday. It was also learned that Blanche Douglass was a New York prostitute, not Walter Malley's fiance, as newspapers had reported. Detectives arrested her in a bordello and returned her to West Haven, where she was charged with perjury. Walter and James were arrested shortly thereafter.
According to the inquest autopsy, Cramer's body tissues indicated that she had ingested a fatal dose of over three grains of arsenic hours before her death. Verdicts were returned on September 3, holding James Malley "criminally responsible" and Walter Malley and Blanche Douglass "morally responsible" for the death of Jennie Cramer by "poison and violence."

The case was immediately referred to West Haven's local court, where numerous witnesses placed Cramer with the defendants at times conflicting with their stories. The West Haven trial seemed to dispose of one report that Cramer had been on a carousel at the town's Savin Rock amusement district, accompanied by a man with a black mustache. Margaret Kane produced her mustachioed companion and claimed to be the woman on the flying horses that Friday night. Kane said that a dizzy spell prompted her to say, "My God, I'm paralyzed!" a comment attributed by others to Jennie Cramer.

James Malley's sisters and a servant testified that he had been at home on Friday night, but the defense could not overcome suspicions that the defendants were lying. The case was referred to New Haven's Superior Court for a full trial. Meanwhile, the case became an international sensation and the Malley family's reputation declined. James' and Walter's haughty attitude did not win them public sympathy, nor did Edward Malley's dismissal of the tragedy with the blithe comment, "Boys will be boys." Amid rumors of bribery, prosecutors seethed over increasing memory lapses suffered by witnesses. A dime pamphlet bearing Cramer's portrait on the cover and containing the testimony leading to the arrests enjoyed a second printing, thanks to the Malley family's efforts to buy up every available copy at local bookshops.

The Elm City Tragedy
On January 17, 1882, multiple charges against all three defendants were consolidated by New Haven's grand jury into a single count of first-degree murder. Cramer's body was exhumed to address arguments that she, like many Victorian girls, habitually ate arsenic to improve her complexion. An examination found little of the substance in her bones, discounting the defense's claims.
When the case finally went to trial on April 25, 1882, prosecutor Tilton Doolittle charged that Walter had brought Douglass to New Haven for the purpose of helping James to "ruin" Cramer. The conspiracy succeeded and Cramer had been poisoned with liquid arsenic for fear that the crime would be discovered.

Despite confusion over dates and times, the defendants' version of Cramer's and their own whereabouts were opposed by a parade of prosecution witnesses, many of whom had testified in the earlier proceedings. A woman who lived opposite Elliott House repeated that she had seen Cramer there alone on Wednesday night and together with the Malleys and Douglass on Thursday. A New Haven waiter testified that he had served Walter, Douglass, and Cramer at 10 p.m. on Wednesday, casting doubt on the story of the party at the Malley mansion. A drugstore clerk recalled serving Cramer and Douglass sodas on Thursday night. A married couple disputed Margaret Kane's story, insisting that it was Cramer who claimed to be stricken on the carousel. The defense offered a sole witness, a doctor who disagreed with medical reports that Cramer had been raped. He also proposed that she had drowned and that the arsenic in her system was the result of habitual use.

In final arguments, one defense attorney theorized that Cramer had committed suicide. Another emphasized the Malleys' alibis, belittled the prosecution's scientific evidence, and said that too little attention had been given to the possibility of a drowning. Douglass's attorney argued that even if Cramer had died of arsenic poisoning, the state had introduced no evidence that the defendants administered it to her. Yet it was the grand jury's decision to charge the defendants only with murder that doomed the prosecution's quest for justice. On June 30, 1882, Judge Miles Granger instructed jurors that they were only to decide if the defendants had murdered Jenny Cramer with arsenic—the accused were not on trial for rape or for telling lies.

The jury acquitted the defendants in less than an hour. Douglass, James, and Walter were freed, but charges that the Malleys had bought their freedom dogged the family for decades. Despite Walter Malley's outspoken desire to discover the real killers, the Cramer case remains unsolved.

—Tom Smith 

On the market: A home to Westport history ... and Paul Newman

   Meg Barone

 Stand in the center of the enchanting 10.46-acre estate at 277 and 275 North Ave. in the Coleytown section of town, and harken back to the sounds of 18th-century, horse-drawn wooden plows clopping through its flax and corn fields. Two centuries later, imagine the laughter of Paul Newman's children as they sledded down the hillside on the back of their famous father.
Influential farmers, artists and actors have inhabited that large property at the corner of North Avenue and Coleytown Road, currently on the market. The site will be sold as a whole or in two separate parcels.
The property is rich with Colonial and contemporary history. Generations of the Coley family lived there for almost 200 years. It's significant that it remained in the Coley family until 1920, according to Bob Weingarten, the Westport Historical Society's house history chairman. David Coley purchased a large area in what was then Fairfield in the early 1700s. That area became known as Coley Village, then Coley Town, and finally the Coleytown area of Westport.
The village had a mill, shoemaker, blacksmith, yarn manufacturer, stables, small village green and one-room school house, which has since been razed and replaced with a large, modern Colonial residence.
As a whole, it is one of the largest residential parcels in town, comprising three houses -- the main house, the former grist and later cotton mill, carriage house, two barns -- one of which is 200 years old and the other was converted into studio space with one bedroom and one bath -- and an approved 2-acre building lot for a five-bedroom house and pool with its own driveway and ample road frontage on North Avenue.
The 10-acre parcel has 680 feet of water frontage on the Aspetuck River.
The earliest portion of the main residence, known as the Ebenezer Coley House, is a well-preserved Colonial Saltbox built circa 1763. Kirby Grimes, noted Hamptons architect, designed the newer addition, which adds functionality and comfort yet echoes the saltbox form and brings the total square footage to 6,442. The transitional space from the old house to new addition has seven sets of French doors to the rear patio and wisteria-entwined pergola.
It is also known as the Kerr Eby House after the noted artist and anti-war activist, who lived there and named it "Driftway." He made sketches and etchings of it between World Wars I and II, which are still sold today. Other notable names from Westport's arts colony who owned portions of the property are sculptor James Earle Fraser and his former student-wife Laura Gardin Fraser, also a famous sculptor, and sculptor Lila Wheelock Howard and her husband, illustrator Oscar Howard.
Unconfirmed rumors suggest the main house was a stop along the Underground Railroad.
The 1,600-square-foot carriage house was built circa 1900 and has three bedrooms and two baths.
The manicured grounds contain formal and informal gardens, heated in-ground Gunite swimming pool near the main house, vintage stone walls and mature trees. And a river runs through it. Closer to the second house the Aspetuck River winds its way through the property. A footbridge crosses the river by a waterfall, and a sunroom in the second house provides a picture-perfect river view.
The second house, the former mill, sits along Coleytown Road and dates back to 1790. It has 2,100 square feet of living space and two fireplaces, one with a bread oven.
Melissa Newman, daughter of the late actor and philanthropist Paul Newman, who once owned the Coley mill house and property with wife Joanne Woodward, has fond memories of life there, including sledding down the hill with her siblings atop their father's back as he navigated a Flexible Flyer.
"My grandmother kept a dresser full of fabric scraps in the house that she used to share with me. I still have some of them," she said.
"My little sister had a tag sale in front of the barn so she could buy a pony with her friend Susan. My parents came by with Sir Lawrence Olivier, and he was so charmed he gave them a check. They did, in fact, buy the pony, a handful named Sugarbear, who they kept and rode for several years," Newman said.
The main house and the mill maintain their central fireplaces. Both houses are within walking distance of the Newman-Poses Nature Preserve.
For more information or to make an appointment to see this house, contact Mary Palmieri Gai of Berkshire Hathaway HomeServices New England Properties at 203-984-2169.

- TYPE OF HOUSE: Antique Colonial, main house
ADDRESS: 277 North Ave.
PRICE: $7,499,000
FEATURES: 1900-era carriage house, 200-year-old barn, heated Gunite in-ground swimming pool, 7.34-acre level property, 355 feet of river frontage, wine cellar and tasting room, patio, porch, two pergolas, wood shingle roof, first floor master bedroom, five working fireplaces, wide-plank chestnut floors, exposed beams, original woodwork, stone walls, energy-efficient features, well water, proximity to Coleytown Elementary and Middle schools, six bedrooms, five full and one half baths
ASSESSMENT: $3,837,200
TAXES: $68,640
- SECOND HOUSE: Antique Colonial, former Coley mill
ADDRESS: 275 North Ave., formerly known as 39 Coleytown Road
PRICE: $2,399,000
FEATURES: 330 feet of frontage along the trout-stocked Aspetuck River, footbridge, waterfall, corner lot, converted barn/guest house, 3.12-acre level and sloped property, two-acre building site, potting shed, stone patios and decks, two fireplaces, well water, three bedrooms, two full and one half baths
ASSESSMENT: $938,900
TAXES: $16,844
SCHOOLS for both homes: Coleytown Elementary, Coleytown Middle, Staples High
TAX RATE: 17.94 mills
PRICE for the entire package: $9,898,000 (10.46 acres)
 More Information
TYPE OF HOUSE: Antique Colonial, main house
ADDRESS: 277 North Ave.
PRICE: $7,499,000
FEATURES: 1900-era carriage house, 200-year-old barn, heated gunite in-ground swimming pool, 7.34-acre level property, 355 feet of river frontage, wine cellar and tasting room, patio, porch, two pergolas, wood shingle roof, first floor master bedroom, five working fireplaces, wide-plank chestnut floors, exposed beams, original woodwork, stone walls, energy-efficient features, well water, proximity to Coleytown Elementary and Middle schools, six bedrooms, five full and one half baths

ASSESSMENT: $3,837,200
TAXES: $68,640
SECOND HOUSE: Antique Colonial, former Coley mill
ADDRESS: 275 North Ave., formerly known as 39 Coleytown Road
PRICE: $2,399,000
FEATURES: 330 feet of frontage along the trout-stocked Aspetuck River, footbridge, waterfall, corner lot, converted barn/guest house, 3.12-acre level and sloped property, two-acre building site, potting shed, stone patios and decks, two fireplaces, well water, three bedrooms, two full and one half baths
ASSESSMENT: $938,900
TAXES: $16,844
SCHOOLS for both homes: Coleytown Elementary, Coleytown Middle, Staples High
TAX RATE: 17.94 mills
PRICE for entire package: $9,898,000 (10.46 acres)   


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I don't kn ow if there is any truth to this at all....

What Is Lyme Disease? New Findings Deepen the Mystery

A new study that points to sexual transmission has added to the controversy.

Jarret Liotta

for National Geographic

Rampant disagreement over what constitutes Lyme disease—in particular, who may have contracted it and how, and how long it lasts—has spawned the larger question of how best to treat it. A new study pointing to the possibility of sexual transmission of the pathogen adds fuel to the fire.

Amid the uncertainty, a patient-led lobby (the counterculture, as someone has called it) that includes doctors as well as Lyme sufferers advocates a broader definition of the disease, both for treatment and insurance purposes.

But the medical establishment asserts that too liberal a definition—and what are seen as renegade practitioners—has led to irresponsible and potentially dangerous treatment of unrelated maladies misidentified as Lyme.

It's also unknown how many people have died because of Lyme. A 2011 study found that of the 114 deaths reported over a five-year period listing Lyme as a partial or direct cause, only one was consistent with clinical manifestations described by the International Classification of Diseases.

In December 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed that Lyme carditis—a condition in which the Lyme bacterium infects the heart—caused three deaths over the past two years. Between 1985 and 2008, only four other fatal cases were confirmed.

While the course of the illness varies greatly from person to person, initial manifestations can include a unique skin lesion known as erythema chronicum migrans, headaches, musculoskeletal pain, coughing, sore throat, conjunctivitis, and minor neurological impairment.

If the diagnosis is confirmed early enough, Lyme is treated almost exclusively with short-term antibiotics, often penicillin, which are almost 100 percent effective. But if Lyme goes untreated, symptoms can progress. (Watch related video: "The Deer Tick")

In Lyme's second stage, typically between one and several months after the initial infection, neurological abnormalities can arise, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and cranial neuritis, which can manifest as facial palsy. Some patients develop cardiac problems.

In the third stage, which can take several months to years to show up, many patients develop chronic arthritis as well as an increase in neurological and cardiac symptoms, the severity of which can ebb and flow.

Voices in the counterculture argue that Lyme's symptoms are more intense and longer lasting than the medical establishment acknowledges. They say that symptoms of chronic Lyme disease are responsible for related deaths, including suicides from depression about the disease or from the trauma of persistent debilitating symptoms such as arthritis, heart problems, and cognitive impairment.

New Developments

And now, further complicating the picture, a study published this January contends that Lyme disease may be sexually transmitted. It shows that the Lyme pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), has been found in both male and female sexual secretions, raising the question of whether people are at risk through intimate contact.

Bb is one of only six known spirochete bacteria, named for their coiled spiral shape. (One of the six is the bacterium responsible for syphilis.)

A collection of Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria, the bacterial agent of Lyme disease transmitted by ticks. 

Borrelia burgdorferi is the bacterial agent of Lyme disease.

The primary vector for Bb is the deer tick—Ixodes scapularis—although other kinds of ticks have been known to transmit it, and other insects, including some mosquitoes, carry the pathogen.

A study of Bb last year revealed that it's the first known organism that doesn't need iron to survive. This allows it to evade an iron-inhibiting hormone called hepcidin, produced by the liver, which can starve intrusive bacteria.

Instead, Bb thrives on manganese, which it uses to make essential enzymes for survival—something researchers who made the discovery last year believe could play a role in ultimately combating the pathogen.

Origins: Did Ötzi Have Lyme?

In 2012, a team of researchers claimed that the 5,300-year-old mummy known as Ötzi the Iceman, discovered along the Austria-Italy border in 1991, had contracted Lyme.

Some claim that the disease first appeared in Germany in the 1880s or France in the 1920s; others say it took root in the U.S. around the time of the Great Depression.

In the summer of 1975, 39 children living relatively close to one another in Lyme, Connecticut, were recognized as sharing common symptoms consistent with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

Polly Murray, whose 11-year-old son, Todd, was one of those affected, alerted the state health department after the local orthopedic doctor was stumped. "He had a different answer for everybody," says Todd, who is now 49.

Ötzi the Iceman, a 5,300-year-old mummy, may have had Lyme disease.

As his mother began drawing attention to the strange epidemic, a doctor at Yale University named Allen Steere began sleuthing the problem.

In a 1977 paper in the medical journal Arthritis and Rheumatism, Steere identified a new disease transmitted by ticks. He called it Lyme arthritis, and soon after it became known as Lyme disease.

Lyme ticks are active year-round, other than during subfreezing weather, but spring is the most dangerous season. That's when the baby ticks, or nits—so tiny as to be almost invisible—are born.

One theory—compelling but controversial—about the sudden emergence of the disease in Connecticut blames the accidental release of infected ticks during experiments at Plum Island Animal Disease Center, on Long Island Sound about eight miles south of Lyme.

Originally operated by the U.S. Army, then by the Department of Agriculture, and now by the Department of Homeland Security, the facility's official mandate is defense research relating to agricultural bioterrorism.

A book by Michael Carroll called Lab 257 cites post-World War II experiments on Plum Island that involved using ticks as disease vectors for germ warfare.

Officials have denied the allegations, but Carroll and others—including former Minnesota Gov. Jesse Ventura—allege the government has used the facility to develop various diseases intended for delivery as biological weapons.

When Is Lyme Lyme?

For his discovery of Lyme and subsequent work on the disease, Allen Steere started out as the counterculture's golden boy. But he came to believe that too many symptoms were being labeled chronic Lyme without proof. He says he's now a pariah to advocacy groups and Lyme sufferers, and he avoids involvement in the increasingly polarized controversy.

Gary Wormser, head of infectious diseases at New York Medical College in Valhalla, agrees that misdiagnosis of Lyme is rampant. "I don't think it's helping patients. I don't think it's helping science," he says.

Lyme, Wormser says, has become a catchall for a constellation of symptoms that elude diagnosis: "If I can't figure out what you have, it must be Lyme disease."

He puts some of the blame on medical science's failure to find answers to a range of symptoms that include headaches, joint and muscle aches, depression, chronic fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, and cognitive impairment. These ailments often seem to be subjective, with no physiological cause.

"For a lot of people who are not feeling well, those people are the most vulnerable to turning to the types of practitioners that don't follow mainstream practices," Wormser says.

"I'm not saying there aren't some [Lyme] patients that have been debilitated by some of these symptoms, but it seems to be a really small percentage—far less than you'd be led to believe."

Todd Murray, one of the original Lyme children, grew up to be an emergency department physician. He believes he still suffers from symptoms relating to the original infection.

"I have weird things I attribute to Lyme," he says, including a permanent heart condition diagnosed in 1989.

As a doctor, Murray recognizes the dilemma of anecdotal evidence. "I can see both sides, because physicians have to go on evidence-based medicine. So to try to use therapies which have not been shown to be beneficial in clinical studies doesn't make sense."

He cites, for instance, hormone replacement therapy for post-menopausal women, which was ultimately shown to increase coronary artery disease, stroke, and breast cancer. "A lot of things in medicine would seem to intuitively make sense. However, when they're studied, the outcomes may be found to be different than expected," Murray says.

Challenges of Treatment

Identification of Lyme usually begins with the telltale bull's-eye rash. But patients don't always present with the rash, or sometimes it has a different shape and appearance, which means the disease can progress before a course of antibiotics is prescribed.

In Lyme's later stages, antibiotics are still used, with dosages and duration increased. But there's disagreement as to whether antibiotics should ever be administered for longer than three months, even in extreme cases.

"The ideology of the counterculture," Steere says, "is to simply treat symptoms with antibiotic therapy, [and] the Infectious Diseases Society of America [IDSA] has said in essence that's not correct." The IDSA notes that "using antibiotics for a very long time [months or years] does not offer superior results and in fact can be dangerous, because it can cause potentially fatal complications."

Lyme disease is often accompanied by a bull's-eye rash.

Counterculture doctors treating patients whom they believe have chronic Lyme will recommend not only long-term antibiotic treatment but also various other therapies, such as holistic curatives, physical therapy, and counseling.

Because some people who have Lyme elude detection, "you have to ask the right questions when you make a diagnosis," Murray says. "I think there needs to be a standardized, reliable protocol for testing."

Culturing the Lyme spirochete, Bb, to determine the presence of Lyme would provide a definitive answer. But it's costly and time-consuming, and therefore rarely done.

Instead doctors usually check for the presence of Lyme antibodies through a blood test. According to the CDC's recommendations, if the test, known as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), proves negative for the antibodies, no further test is recommended. If it comes up positive, a second test—an immunoblot test—is recommended to confirm Lyme.

Murray says ELISA and blots in tandem are currently the best method, along with more complicated cerebrospinal fluid tests in cases where symptoms are apparent but the first two tests are negative.

But with these methods, false negatives are still a significant possibility. It's also possible that Lyme cells can alter their outer surface protein and escape detection, and that different spirochetes can cause symptoms that look like Lyme but aren't. All this, Murray says, means research must be targeted toward finding better tests for the disease.

Follow the Leaders—Or Off With Your Head!

Daniel Cameron, president of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, speaks for the counterculture. He believes that "thought leaders" in the medical community prevent acceptance of what he considers strong evidence that Lyme is both underreported and ineffectively treated. "Who wants to question Dr. Wormser?" he says.

"Even though the evidence is accumulating [that Lyme can be chronic], doctors have a tendency to have to wait for a thought leader to change their mind, otherwise they'll get criticized, or the medical board might drop the ax on you," he says. "Off with your head! So it becomes high risk to become a doctor who treats chronic Lyme. Most doctors don't want to have to."

Photo of a hiker on a trail in Wisconsin. 
Photograph by Jeffrey Phelps, Aurora Photos/Corbis

Ticks are easily picked up on hikes through wooded areas, like the trails seen here in Parfrey's Glen in Wisconsin.

Cameron says many state medical boards are pursuing lengthy "chart-by-chart" investigations of doctors using long-term antibiotic treatment for Lyme. These can continue for years prior to legal action by boards aimed at revoking a doctor's license.

But five states—California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island—have passed laws protecting physicians from reprisal or harassment when treating Lyme patients with long-term antibiotics.

While he's careful not to use the word "cure," Cameron says that with long-term treatment, patients who have had Lyme for years can go into remission and be symptom-free.

He's not particularly impressed with the CDC's latest announcement that the number of Lyme cases in the U.S. is likely ten times the 30,000 or so generally reported each year.

"In epidemiology, every time you have a surveillance system, you always at least have a tenfold underreporting. There have been studies that show it might be as much as 40 times that."

He also questions the fact that 95 percent of the reported cases come from just 13 states, mostly in the Northeast, along with Minnesota, Virginia, and Wisconsin. People in other states are less likely to report cases if the official view is that Lyme is rare and geographically restricted, according to Cameron. "That's a little bit of a reporting problem."

Could the CDC's admission of greater numbers be related to the preparation of a new Lyme vaccine?

"They had one vaccine," Cameron says—LYMErix, which was available for about five years until 2002. It was then shelved because of low sales and, some say, questionable effectiveness. (Ironically, Lyme vaccines are available for dogs but not humans.)

"The buzz on the street is that, of course, one of the reasons the CDC recognized more cases is that in order to get a vaccine through the pipeline, you have to have a problem," Cameron says.

Game Changer

Raphael Stricker, a San Francisco–based internist who co-led the sexual transmission study, says the possibility of Lyme spreading that way would "change the whole picture." It means that potentially ticks aren't the only culprits.

"What I think this is going to do is that it's going to move treatment to another level," he says.

Connecticut Witch Trials

 By E.Jones,
NEW HAVEN, Conn. (WTNH) – We usually think of Salem Massachusetts when we think of witch trials, but Connecticut has it’s very own witch trial history.
Cynthia Wolfe Boynton who wrote  “Connecticut Witch Trials: The First Panic in the New Word” joins Jim on set to talk about her book.
Written by award-winning journalist Cynthia Wolfe Boynton and published at the end of September by The History Press. It uses newspaper clippings, court records, letters and diary entries to tell the story of Connecticut’s witch hunt, which began almost 50 years before Salem’s more infamous one.
Connecticut’s witch hunt was the first and most ferocious in New England, yet few know it ever occurred. Why is this?
It’s likely because Connecticut’s took place in a relatively calm manner over an extended period of time — 1647 and 1697 — and following all the judicial procedures of the day, while Salem’s consisted of a wild, intense and hysterical seven months in 1692, where few judicial processes were followed. In Connecticut, witchcraft was a crime like robbery or murder. You committed it, you were arrested and tried. Today, the idea seems sensational, but it wasn’t in the 17th century. They believed the devil walked the earth and was as much a threat to the public that needed to be stopped as, say, a uncaught killer is today.
How many people were executed?
Eleven women and men were executed, beginning with Alse (Alice) Youngs of Windsor. Her hanging in Hartford on May 26, 1647 was the first witchcraft execution to occur in New England and the new world. Most were women, but there were also men and a handful of couples were accused, a few of them executed together.
Was writing this book easy? Was there a lot of information for you to go off of?
No. It wasn’t easy. There are no known diaries or first-person accounts from those who witnessed the trials. And the majority of court ledgers and other documents from the period no longer exist.
The few delicate, handwritten court papers and depositions that do remain are housed in archives at the Connecticut State Library, Connecticut Historical Society and at Brown University’s John Hay Library in very fragile condition — torn, yellowed and often incomplete. What’s there, however, does provide insightful details. There’s also been a few reference books about Connecticut’s witch trials that were written that were just invaluable to me. Connecticut State Historian Walter Woodward is probably the state’s upmost expert on the topic, so I attended several lectures he gave on the topic, and just worked really hard to dig and piece together whatever I could from the very scattered bits of information that exist.
Isn’t the classic children’s book The Witch of Blackbird Pond about Connecticut’s witch trials?
It is. It’s a book published in 1958 that was inspired by Wethersfield’s witchcraft history, and it’s widely popular, used in language arts curriculums in middle schools around the country. It’s a wonderful story, but factually it’s inaccurate. It’s fiction. But when I wrote my book, I tried to keep The Witch of Blackbird Pond in the back of my mind and remember that people love it, and it’s remained popular for so many years, because it’s so well written and presented as a wonderful story. I tried to write my book the same way–to present what happened during Connecticut’s witch trials as not just a conglomeration of names, dates and fact, but as a story that would draw people in and enjoy.
Were there any people from this time in Connecticut history who especially impressed and stuck with you?
John Winthrop Jr. He was one of Connecticut’s governors during this period and instrumental in saving the lives of several accused witches, as well as bringing Connecticut’s witch trials to an end. Winthrop wasn’t just a politician. He was a physician, an astronomer, and an alchemist. And he knew that not everything in life was as cut and dry as Puritans believed. Winthrop understood that not everything was unexplainable was caused by witchcraft or the devil, and he worked very hard to make Connecticut’s leaders at that time, and the people who lived in the Connecticut Colony, to see and understand that too.
The book was published last month, but you’re having a launch party this week?
Yes. The Barnes & Noble in Milford is hosting a launch this Tuesday, Oct 28, at 7 pm, which I’m very grateful and excited for.

Fifth Connecticut Regiment sets up history camp at Bradley-Hubbell Homestead

By Tony Spinelli

Alex DeAndrade, 16, of Ledyard stirs a pot of goulash over an open campfire at the 5th Connecticut Regiment, an American Revolution re-enactment group that encamped at the historic Bradley-Hubbell Homestead on a recent Saturday. Photo by Tony Spinelli
It was just a simple iron pot of goulash, with chunks of stew beef mixed with some minced onions and a soupy tomato base, 1776 style, but 16-year-old Alex DeAndrade of Ledyard stirred it up over an open campfire as if it were the leading entrée from a five-star restaurant.
“It’s delicious,” said Alex, who is one of the youngest members of the 5th Connecticut Regiment, an American Revolution re-enactment group that encamped at the historic Bradley-Hubbell Homestead Saturday for a fund-raiser.
The event, from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m., drew a couple of dozen visitors during the first hour, and members of the Easton Historical Society were hopeful a lot more would stop by to take in a little living history.
Mike Zap, 62, of Ridgefield drew lots of attention with his replica musket from the American Revolution. The long gun shook the air with a loud crack and emitted a burst of smoke and fire, but was not half as dangerous as the innocuous looking star-shaped bayonet attached to it, he explained.
It seems the Colonial muskets had little accuracy, as far as firearms go. “You were lucky to hit anything,” he said. “That’s why the soldiers stood in line and fired together. They hoped if they all aimed at the same time at least some of them would hit something.”
The real danger was when the fighting got close and the bayonets were used.
“They made a wound that could not be sutured by doctors of the time,” he said, to an astonished crowd of onlookers. “Even if you got bayoneted in the leg, you could bleed to death. Or you’d get an infection and die from that.”
Mr. Zap said the regiment is made up of men, women and children who enjoy teaching living history, by dressing the part and playing the role of the nation’s first army.
He played a guessing game.
“Most of what I have is period replica, but there is one thing about me today that isn’t. Can you guess what it is?” he asked some spectators.
It wasn’t his white shirt. It wasn’t the linen pants, or wool coat.
“It’s my beard,” he said, tackling his neck fur. “The Continental Army were not allowed to wear beards.”
That’s too bad, because they could have used them to help keep warm.
“There were 5,000 who died. Most died from hunger, or from exposure to the weather,” he said, reckoning up a vision of Valley Forge.
The regiment takes its name from a historic precedent. The second formation, 5th Regiment-Connecticut Line, was part of the long-term Continental Army, America’s first regular troops, and was formed in the spring of 1777 under Col. Philip Burr Bradley, according to the group’s literature.
The regiment saw its first action against the better-trained, better-equipped British at Ridgefield in April 1777.
The regiment was also unfortunate to suffer from a lack of food, clothing and clean sanitary conditions, and spent the winter of 1777-78 at Valley Forge. The regiment fought at famous battles, including Germantown, Pa., in 1777, and Yorktown, N.Y., in 1781. It dissolved after 1782.
Today’s 5th Connecticut Regiment was formed as a living history unit in late 1974, according to the literature. Once or twice a year, the regiment travels to major re-enactments from Quebec to Virginia.
Under a tent Saturday, brothers Sam Dennis, 13, of Trumbull and Kole Dennis, 10, got a look at some of the smaller weapons soldiers would use and were quite impressed.
“I like the grenade,” said Kole, hoisting a black iron ball stuffed with a fuse, about the size of a baseball. It packed a powerful gunpowder punch back in George Washington’s day.
“I like the tomahawk,” said Sam, who learned that tomahawks came in large and small sizes, one small enough for a boy to use because boys had to learn their role in the world of soldiering and homesteading.
The re-enactment, which also included a cannon drill and an attack from British marines, was sponsored by the Historical Society of Easton and Easton’s Parks and Recreation Department. Admission was $5.
There are more events planned. Richard Tomlinson will speak on “Witchcraft Prosecution: Chasing the Devil in Connecticut” on Sunday, Oct. 19, from 2 to 4 at the Easton Public Library Community Room, 691 Morehouse Road.
The author will highlight three major witchcraft trials in Connecticut history, the Hartford Witch Panic of 1662-63; the landmark prosecution of Katherine Harrison of Wethersfield; and the trial of Mercy Disbrow, the last woman convicted of witchcraft in Connecticut, a case that was contemporary with the Salem witch hunts.
Another event coming up is on Sunday, Nov. 2, at 2 p.m., also at the Easton Library Community Room. Carolyn Ivanoff will discuss “One Family’s Civil War.”

She will discuss the story of the French family during the Civil War, based on nearly 600 letters of Captain Wilson French, Company G, 17th Connecticut Volunteers, who was wounded and captured at the battle of Gettysburg.